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Excavations
at
Valshni
Village,
Arizona

Cover
Copyright

2002 Editor's Foreword

1973 Editor's Foreword

Author's Preface

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Regional & vicinity maps

Introduction

Habitat

Methods

Dating

Architecture
Vamori
Topawa
Non-architectural Features
Pottery
Local
Intrusive
Misc. Clay Objects
Burial

Stonework

Bonework

Shellwork

Summary and Conclusions

Appendix: Canal

Bibliography

2000 notes

Valshni Village logo


Pottery

Locally manufactured

Owing to the total lack of knowledge of the earlier phases in Papagueria, most of the pottery types have never been recognized, and note have ever been described. On the following pages are the technological analysis of these types as they occur in the Vamori and Topawa Phases at Valshni Village. These include the two local red-on-brown types and one redware type.

The intrusive types from Sonora have been described technically here because, while they have been recognized and defined to a limited extent, no adequate descriptions have ever been set forth. The only new type in this series is Altar Polychrome.

The numbers and plate references used to describe the colors are according to Ridgeway's color standards (Ridgeway, 1912). The numbers used to record hardness refer to Mho's [sic] Scale.

All percentages were calculated from a sample of 81,344 sherds recovered from the stratitests in the four largest mounds.

LOCAL WARE

Sells Plain

Sells Plain was the plainware found at Valshni Village. The technical description of this ware shall not be given here since Scantling (1940:33) has already done this. There were however, a number of features which did occur on Sells Plain during the Vamori Phase which were subsequently lost.

The incision of lines along the rim was not uncommon. Some jars were also incised. The majority of the incisions were made after the jars were fired, but occasionally, this was done while the clay was still damp (Fig. 12).

Figure 12. Incised plainware sherds Figure 12. Incised plainware sherds (Courtesy Arizona State Museum)

Examples of exceedingly thick Vamori Phase plainware were found. Sherds of one jar were found where the wall thickness at a point just below the rim was 2.8 cm. Several sherds resembling the "stucco" ware of the lower Colorado River were found.

There was a shift in the kind of plainware vessel being made through time. This is represented in a decrease in the number of bowls produced relative to jars. This is illustrated in Table 4.


Table 4

Vamori Topawa Sells

Bowls 24.4% 29.7% 6.5%
Jars 74.4% 70.3% 93.5%

The cause for this shift may be in that redwares were made predominantly in bowl form and therefore supplanted the plainwares for the functions fulfilled by bowls.

Vamori Red-on-brown


Core

Methods of manufacture:
Paddle and anvil.

Paste:
Same as described by Scantling, (1940:33) which is as follows:

Color: Varies from buff to bright brick-red, 5''i. Carbon core generally present.

Inclusions:
Angular fragments of white quartz, rounded sand particles. Occasional fortuitous inclusion of small particles of mica.

Texture:
Heavily tempered, coarse to very coarse, granular to friable.

Fracture:
Irregular, slightly oblique to surface of the vessel, rough and regular.

Hardness:
3.5 - 4.5

Surface

Color:
Cinnamon to light brown.

Range:
15''-h (Ridgeway, Plate XXIV)
9''-h (Ridgeway, Plate XXVIII).

Hardness:
4 - 4.5.

Evenness:
Uneven; anvil marks usually noticeable on interior.

Texture:
Rough.

Luster:
Dull; usually unpolished.

Slip:
None.

Defects:
Occasional spalling.

Paint

Composition:
Inorganic, probably iron.

Color:
Dull red to purple.

Range:
5'''' (Ridgeway, Plate XLV)
9'''' ((Ridgeway, Plate XLV)
1'''' (Ridgeway, Plate XLV)

Luster:
Dull.

Hardness:
2.5.

Evenness:
Uneven.

Defects:
Abrasion. Paint thinly applied and tends to be fugitive.

Form (from sherds only)

Bowls:
Typical form is a hemispherical bowl with a slightly recurved rim

Diameter:
20 38 cm.; average 32 cm.

Wall thickness:
0.3 - 0.8 cm.

Rim form:
(Fig. 13)

Jars:
Rare. Straight short neck on globular body.

Diameter at lip:
14 cm.

Wall thickness:
0.4 - 0.7 cm.

Rim form:
(Fig. 13)

Fig. 13. Vamori R/br rims Figure 13. Vamori R/br Rim Forms (Courtesy Arizona State Museum)
a - f, bowls
g, jar

Design (Fig. 14)

Layout:
Usually in a broad band around the interior of the bowls. Top of band limited by rim line; bottom by a line painted around the vessel interior near the bottom. Large solid triangles often pendant from the rim and from the bottom line. Interlocking scrolls often made by extending apex of triangles. Triangles often bounded by squiggly or straight lines or these lines may be arranged in parallel groups. Small elements were occasionally employed. A ribbon of paint is typically applied along the rim. Exteriors of bowls are rarely decorated. When they are, it is with one or two elements near the rim placed intermittently around the vessel. Jars are decorated in a panel around the body. A narrow band of design is applied usually around the interior of the rim.

Motifs:
Straight broad lines
Zigzag or squiggly lines
Sold triangles
Interlocking scrolls
Lines with small pendant triangles

Type Site:

Valshni Village (Arizona DD:1:11(ASM)).

Range:

So far found only at Valshni Village. Probable range is the southern portion of the Papago Indian Reservation.


Remarks

Vamori Red-on-brown is a new type. It marks the beginning of decorated pottery made in Papagueria. Only 259 sherds of Vamori Red-on-brown were found in trash mounds 1, 2, and 3. Because of the scarcity of the type and the dissimilarity of the type to other decorated types in the area, it was at first felt that it was intrusive into the area. The analysis of the paste showed that it was locally produced. The paint was poorly mixed and poorly applied to what otherwise would be called Sells Plain Ware. During the early part of the Vamori Phase (represented by trash mounds 1 and 2), the type represented only 8% of all decorated ware found. Toward the late part of the Vamori Phase (represented by trash mound 3) the type represented about 33% of decorated ware, but still only 1,7% of the total pottery found The rise is correlated with a relative decline in the intrusive Red-on-buff from the Gila Basin. Topawa Red-on-brown developed from the Vamori Red-on-brown.

Figure 14. Vamori Red-on-brown sherds Figure 14. Vamori Red-on-brown sherds (Courtesy Arizona State Museum)


Figure 15. Topawa Red-on-brown sherds
Figure 15. Topawa Red-on-brown sherds (Courtesy Arizona State Museum)

Topawa Red-on-brown


Core

Method of manufacture:
Paddle and anvil (Scantling, 1940:27).

Paste:
Same as Tanque Verde Red-on-brown. More apt to have carbon streak.

Surface

Color:
Usually a light cinnamon brown.

Range:
14''-a (Ridgeway, Plate XXIX)
15'''-b (Ridgeway, Plate XL)
17'''-f (Ridgeway, Plate XL)

Interior of bowls sometimes burned black.

Hardness:
4.0 - 4.5.

Texture:
Smooth to slightly rough.

Luster:
Dull to lustrous. Polishing marks usually over the decoration. Not highly polished.

Slip:
Sometimes a thin wash applied. Usually none.

Defects:
Occasional crazing and spalling.

Paint

Composition:
Inorganic, probably iron.

Color:
Usually a reddish-brown. Range:
3'-m (Ridgeway, Plate XIII)
5''-j (Ridgeway, Plate XXVII)
5''-k (Ridgeway, Plate XXVII)

Luster:
Dull to lustrous (depending on whether or not the polishing is done over the decoration).

Relief:
None.

Hardness:
2.0 - 2.5.

Defects:
Paint tends to be fugitive.

Form (from sherds only)

Bowls:
Hemispherical with straight or outcurved rims.

Diameter: 24 - 32 cm.; average 28 cm.

Wall thickness: 0.4 - 0.7 cm.

Rim form: (Fig. 16, a - d)

Jars:
Usually large globular bodies with constricted straight necks.

Diameter at mouth:
18 - 22 cm.

Wall thickness:
0.4 - 0.8 cm.

Rim form:
(Fig. 16,-6, f)

Figure 16. Topawa Red-on-brown rim forms Figure 16. Topawa Red-on-brown rim forms (Courtesy Arizona State Museum)
a - d, bowls
e - f, jars

Layout:
In band patterns.

Wide encircling band on interior, sometimes almost to bottom of vessel. Relatively narrower band encircling rim on exterior, usually in some variation of a chevron pattern. Varies from 40 to 60 millimeters in width. Banded patterns encircle both the necks and bodies of jars. A ribbon of paint is applied along rims of both bowls and jars. Bowls not always decorated on exterior. Designs almost always rectilinear.

Motifs:
Squiggly lines.
Lines with pendant triangles or dots.
Triangular scroll.
Parallel lines.
Cross-hatched triangles (rare).
Chevrons.

The sherds of Topawa Red-on-brown found at Valshni Village were too few to establish a new type. As an aid to the establishment of this type, a collection of painted sherds was used from a Topawa Phase site (Arizona DD:5:8) which was excavated by William Bailey in February 1941, under the sponsorship of the Arizona State Museum and the Civilian Conservation Corp-Indian Division.

Type Site:

Valshni Village (Arizona DD:1:11).

To date, found only in immediate area of Valshni Village. Probably extends over the southern portion of the Papago Indian Reservation, and perhaps to the east. [Ed. Note: Greenleaf believes that a locally made Topawa Red-on-brown was made at Punta de Agua at San Xavier on the Santa Cruz River (Greenleaf, Manuscript).]
Design (Fig. 15)


Remarks

Topawa Red-on-brown is a direct outgrowth from Vamori Red-on-brown and is a diagnostic for the Topawa Phase. It was formed by a fusion of Vamori Red-on-brown and red-on-brown wares from the Tucson region. Influence from the Tucson area is marked and appears for the first time with the entrance of this type.

Polishing, used previously on the red ware, is now applied to decorated pottery. The pottery makers now had better control of the paint. Designs were better thought out and more surely executed. Topawa Red-on-brown attained a certain sophistication in design never achieved on Vamori Red-on-brown.

This type is a diagnostic for the Topawa Phase. The local decorated ware, while still low numerically (0.5% of all pottery), continued to replace intrusives from the outside. In the Topawa Phase, as represented at Valshni Village, Topawa Red-on-brown made up 73.9% of all decorated pottery found. Intrusives from the Gila Basin area had dropped to 19.5%.

Topawa Red-on-brown differs from its successor, Tanque Verde Red-on-brown in the following characteristics:

  1. Main field of decoration transferred, from interiors to exteriors of bowls in Tanque Verde Red-on-brown.

  2. Higher polish and smoother finish on Tanque- Verde Red-on-brown.

  3. Differences in design:
    1. General lack of broad line treatment in Topawa Red-on-brown.
    2. Lack of basketweave and checkerboard designs in Topawa Red-on-brown.
    3. Lack of interlocking scrolls in Topawa Red-on-brown.
    4. Lack of hooked triangles in Topawa Red-on-brown.

  4. Greater sophistication in design and execution in Tanque Verde Red-on-brown.

  5. Tanque Verde Red-on-brown later in time.

Valshni Red

Core

Method of Manufacture:

Paddle and anvil

Paste

Color:

Red-orange to brick-red.

No carbon streak.

Range:
5'-j (Ridgeway, Plate XIII)
7'-i (Ridgeway, Plate XIV)
7'-h (Ridgeway, Plate XIV)
5'-j (Ridgeway, Plate XIV)

Inclusions:

Numerous, angular pieces of white quartzite.

Texture:

Granular and friable.

Fracture:

Straight but rough and granular.

Hardness:

4.5.

Surface

Color:

Same as paste.

Hardness:

4.5

Evenness:

Usually even.

Texture:

Smooth.

Luster:

Uniformly lustrous. Polishing marks easily discernible and almost always at right angles to the rim and extend to the rim.

Slip:

Inorganic and of medium thickness.

Defects:

Crazing.

Form

Bowls

Percentage:

89.4%

Types:

Predominant type is a large hemispherical bowl. A few were made with flat bottoms (Fig. 17, j), and a few others had a shoulder near the base. The shoulder type had a recurved rim.

Wall thickness:

0.4 - 1.0 cm.

Diameter:

20 - 44 cm.; average 34 cm.

Rim form:

(Fig. 17,a - f)

Jars (sub-type: seed jars):

Percentage:

10% (0.6%).

Types:

Globular body with incurved neck and straight rim.

Wall thickness:

Same as for bowls.

Diameter at mouth:

14 - 22 cm.

Rim form:

(Fig. 17, h, i)

Platters:

Sample:

1

Diameter:

34 cm.

Figure 17: Valshni Red rim and base forms Figure 17. Vamori Red rim and base forms (Courtesy Arizona State Museum)
a - f, bowls
g, platter
h, jar
i, seed jar
j, flat-bottomed bowl
Width of "a" is 5 mm.

Type Site:

Valshni Village (Arizona DD:1:11).

Range:

So far this type is known to exist only in the southern part of the Papago Indian Reservation, although further investigation may show it to extend into other regions.

Remarks

Valshni Red is found in both the Vamori and Topawa Phases, giving it a time range of approximately 800 to 1250 A.D. In the early portion of the Vamori Phase (Mounds I and 2) very little is found. It shows a marked increase about the middle of this phase and is abundant in the Topawa Phase (Fig. 2). The diagnostics for Valshni Red are: the pattern of the polishing marks, the well-polished, brick-red surface, white quartzite inclusions, and the brick-red paste without a carbon streak. The polishing marks may not show up well, and the surface often loses its luster due to exposure to the elements.

Valshni Red is the lineal predecessor of Sells Red (Scantling, 1940: 30-33), the distinctive red ware of the Sells Phase. The two forms show many overlapping characteristics, such as similarities of paste, finish, color. The red ware of the Topawa Phase forecasts Sells Red in its trend toward outflaring rims. The gradual increase from early to late by the red ware at Valshni Village, where in the Vamori Phase it makes up 1.6% of all the pottery and in the Topawa Phase 22.4%, is culminated by Sells Red which constitutes 55% of the pottery at the Jackrabbit Ruin (Scantling, 1940:30).

Valshni Red may be distinguished from Sells Red by the following traits: absence of a thickened rim, absence of a carbon streak, pattern of the polishing marks, and in a general way, by the shape. Valshni Red also offers a possible source for Sacaton Red in the Gila Basin.




. Non-architectural feat.
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Table of Contents
Intrusive pottery .


Table of Contents
(Sequencing left to right, top to bottom)

Cover

Copyright

2002 Editor's Foreword

1973 Editor's Foreword

Author's Preface

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Regional & vicinity maps

Introduction

Habitat

Methods

Dating

Architecture

Vamori Architecture

Topawa Architecture

Non-architectural Features

Pottery

Local pottery

Intrusive pottery

Misc. Clay Objects

Burial

Stonework

Bonework

Shellwork

Summary and Conclusions

Appendix: Canal

Bibliography

2000 notes



Walter 'Dutch' Duering
PO Box 8429
Phoenix, AZ 85066-8429
United States

duering@stockmorehouse.com