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Excavations
at
Valshni
Village,
Arizona

Cover
Copyright

2002 Editor's Foreword

1973 Editor's Foreword

Author's Preface

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Regional & vicinity maps

Introduction

Habitat

Methods

Dating

Architecture
Vamori
Topawa
Non-architectural Features
Pottery
Local
Intrusive
Misc. Clay Objects
Burial

Stonework

Bonework

Shellwork

Summary and Conclusions

Appendix: Canal

Bibliography

2000 notes

Valshni Village logo


Dating

Valshni Village, as noted previously, would not have the proper wood available for dendrochronology. Dating had to be based on stratigraphic studies and the occurrence of intrusive trade items.

The results of the stratitests in the four main mounds were disappointing. The material within a mound was relatively homogeneous; the principal differences occurred between mounds. A relative, floating chronology valid for Valshni Village could have been developed from internal evidence on the site, however, the only potential for assigning calendrical dates proved to be the intrusive Hohokam Red-on-buff ware, intrusive from the Gila Basin. The dating of the Hohokam series was worked out in detail by Gila Pueblo of Globe, Arizona (Gladwin and others, 1937). The dates were based on the association of intrusive Mogollon and Anasazi types, types which have been dated by dendrochronology. The dates determined for the different phases of the Hohokam sequence are being strengthened at every excavation where Hohokam material has been intruded into tree ring datable associations. [Ed. Note: Gladwin had several changes of heart with the original set of dates (Gladwin, 1942, and 1948). DiPeso (1956), Wheat (1955), and Bullard (1962) also have suggested chronological schemes for the Hohokam. There can, however, be little doubt regarding the accuracy of the dates for the Gila Butte, Santa Cruz, Sacaton, and Soho Phases suggested in the original Snaketown report (Gladwin and others, 1937). These are the critical phases for the dating of Valshni Village.]

The dating problem at Valshni Village is a double problem. First, there is the dating of the two defined phases of the indigenous culture, the Vamori and Topawa Phases. Secondly, the Trincheras series potteries, not dated in the past, were present in sufficient quantities and in a context where some feeling can be gained of their age. The ceramic associations are given by phase in Table 2.


Table 2. Pottery associations by Phase

Phase
Pottery
Types
Sells Indigenous Sells Plain
Sells Red
Tanque Verde Red-on-brown
Intrusive Casa Grande Red-on-buff
Gila Polychrome
Topawa Indigenous Sells Plain
Valshni Red
Topawa Red-on-brown
Intrusive Casa Grande Red-on-buff
Sacaton Red-on-buff
Trincheras Black-on-red
Vamori Indigenous Sells Plain, Valshni Red
Vamori Red-on-brown
Intrusive Santa Cruz Red-on-buff
Sacaton Red-on-buff
Trincheras Black-on-red
Trincheras Polychrome
Altar Polychrome

Trash mounds 1 and 2 represented the earliest trash deposits found at Valshni Village. Vamori Red-on-brown was the indigenous decorated pottery. The intruded Hohokam pottery was in each case, Santa Cruz Red-on-buff, Sacaton Red-on-buff, and a large body of sherds intermediate in type. The two types were very mixed in the trash. The deposition of mounds 1 and 2 occurred during the time that was transitional between the Santa Cruz and Sacaton Phases in the Gila Basin, which occurred at approximately A.D. 900. Therefore, because of the presence of Santa Cruz Red-on-buff, Sacaton Red-on-buff, and a large body of sherds intermediate between the two types, the beginning of the Vamori Phase is dated at A.D. 800.

Mound 3 contained Vamori Red-on-brown as the indigenous decorated ware. The intrusive Hohokam pottery was almost completely Sacaton Red-on-buff. Mound 4 contained Topawa Red-on-brown as the indigenous type, associated with some Sacaton Red-on-buff and a large amount of Casa Grande Red-on-buff. Based on the strong Vamori Red-on-brown-Sacaton Red-on-brown association in Mound 3 and the strong Topawa Red-on-brown-Casa Grande Red-on-buff association in Mound 4, the terminal point for the Vamori Phase (the initial point for the Topawa Phase) is dated at A.D. 1100. The terminal date for the Topawa Phase (initial date for the Sells Phase) is A.D. 1250. Table 3 sets forth the Papaguerian Phases known at present and their correlatives in the Hohokam Sequence after A.D. 700.


Table 3. Chronologic correlation of Papaguerian and Gila Basin Phase sequences

A.D. Dates
Papaguerian Sequence
Hohokam Sequence
1450 ? ?
1400

1350 Sells Phase Civano Phase
1300
1250
1200 Topawa Phase Soho Phase
1150
1100

1050
1000 Sacaton Phase
950 Vamori Phase
900
850
800
Santa Cruz Phase
750 ?
700

A single Black-on-white sherd was associated with the Topawa Phase trash on the western portion of the site. This sherd was identified as either Mesa Verde Black-on-white or a hybrid of Sosi Black-on-white and Dogoszhi Black-on-white (Colton, personal communication). Mesa Verde Black-on-white has been dated as early as A.D. 1200 (Colton and Hargrave, 1937:231), Sosi Black-on-white from about A.D. 1120-1150 (Colton and Hargrave, 1937:211), and Dogoszhi Black-on-white until A.D. 1150 (Colton and Hargrave, 1937:209)., [Ed. Note: Breternitz suggests best dates for indigenous Mesa Verde Black-on-white as "between 1030 and 1284", and as a tradeware "between 1270 and 1340 plus or minus" (1966:85-86). Sosi Black-on-white is best indigenously "between 1095 and 119011, as a tradeware "between 1075 and about 1200", (Breternitz, 1966:96), while Dogoszhi Black-on-white is best indigenously "between 1137 and 1200", and as a tradeware, "between 1085 and 1200" (Breternitz, 1966:73-74).] This sherd tends to confirm the dating of the Topawa Phase.

The second part of the dating problem, that of the Trincheras pottery cannot be handled as readily, but approximate dates can be suggested. It must be stressed, that these dates are for Trincheras materials in sites in which it has occurred intrusively, not in its home area.

Trincheras Purple-on-red, Trincheras Polychrome, and Altar Polychrome were well established by the 10th century A. D. The evidence at Valshni Village gives them a strong Vamori Phase association. The small amount of Trincheras pottery (less than 0.1% of all decorated pottery) at the Gleeson Site (Fulton and Tuthill,1940:48) supports this general period of time for the series, the Gleeson Site dating between approximately A.D. 800 and A.D. 1000. The available data would make it appear that these types developed earlier in the Trincheras area than is found in these two sites.

The two Trincheras Polychromes appeared at Valshni Village only in the early part of the Vamori Phase and in very minor quantities, less than 0.8% of all decorated pottery. These dates would suggest that these two types were dying out or were never made in great quantity. The former would seem to be the more likely as they occur frequently in surface collections from Sonoran sites. Therefore, it is suggested that Trincheras and Altar Polychromes reached their peak development prior to A.D. 800. Since Trincheras Purple-on-red is always associated with the Polychromes in Sonora, the development of this type probably also dates prior to A. D. 800. The Polychromes had apparently ceased to be made by A. D. 1000, although the Purple-on-red may have been produced as late as A.D. 1250.




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Table of Contents
Architecture .


Table of Contents
(Sequencing left to right, top to bottom)

Cover

Copyright

2002 Editor's Foreword

1973 Editor's Foreword

Author's Preface

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Regional & vicinity maps

Introduction

Habitat

Methods

Dating

Architecture

Vamori Architecture

Topawa Architecture

Non-architectural Features

Pottery

Local pottery

Intrusive pottery

Misc. Clay Objects

Burial

Stonework

Bonework

Shellwork

Summary and Conclusions

Appendix: Canal

Bibliography

2000 notes



Walter 'Dutch' Duering
PO Box 8429
Phoenix, AZ 85066-8429
United States

duering@stockmorehouse.com